July 27, 2021 - EDT
08:30 – 08:35
Chairman’s opening remarks
08:35 – 09:20
Outcomes of the 3-year review of the FX Global Code
- What are the key changes and takeaways?
- Disclosure Cover Sheets: Achieving greater transparency and ensuring that the information is relevant and accessible to market participants
- Anonymous trading and is impact on the market: Key recommendations
Reserve Bank of Australia
Dr Guy Debelle commenced as Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia on 18 September 2016. He is Deputy Chair of the Reserve Bank Board and Chair of the Reserve Bank's Risk Management Committee. Prior to his current role, Dr Debelle was the Assistant Governor (Financial Markets).
In May 2019, Dr Debelle was appointed Chair of the Global Foreign Exchange Committee (GFXC). Prior to this, he was Chair of the BIS Foreign Exchange Working Group responsible for the development of the Global Code of Conduct for the Foreign Exchange Market as well as Chair of the Australian Foreign Exchange Committee.
Dr Debelle worked at the International Monetary Fund, Bank for International Settlements, Australian Treasury and as a visiting professor in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He graduated from the University of Adelaide with an honours degree in economics and gained his PhD in economics at MIT under Stanley Fischer and Rudi Dornbusch.
Dr Debelle is a signatory to The Banking and Finance Oath.
09:20 – 10:20
Settlement risk – What to tackle and how?
- When it comes to physical settlement of FX, mitigation of settlement risk is key. How much settlement risk exists in FX and where are the gaps?
- What is the current landscape, in terms of mechanisms and services to minimize settlement risk and what are the factors that go into mitigating settlement risk?
- What are the benefits of mitigating settlement risk and what are the hurdles?
- A joint effort: Can central banks, FX market participants, infrastructures and vendors work together to address settlement risk through collaboration?
Managing Director, Americas, FX Division
Global Financial Markets Association (GFMA)
Victoria Cumings is the Americas representative of the Global Foreign Exchange Division (GFXD) of the Global Financial Markets Association (GFMA). Since its establishment, the GFXD has grown to 24 members, between them accounting for over 90% of the global FX market, and is represented in Europe, North America and Asia. The GFXD works with key regulators, Central Banks and other interested parties to monitor policy and regulatory developments that could affect the FX markets and seeks to ensure the establishment of harmonised regimes and infrastructure to enable an effective market for all participants.
Victoria is responsible for regulatory issues in the Americas and for a number of global GFXD topics, in areas including capital, margin and clearing. Victoria is also a former attorney and has previously held positions at CLS Bank, HSBC, Davis Polk, and McCullough Robertson.
Global head of product
Keith joined CLS in 2020 and is Global Head of Product, with responsibility for new product development and overseeing our existing product portfolio across Settlement, Processing and Data service lines.
Keith has over 20 years of experience in the financial technology sector, much of which has focused on FX and OTC derivatives trade processing and G20 regulatory change. He joined CLS from Droit Financial Technologies, where he worked as Head of Business Development for Europe and Asia Pacific. Previously, Keith held numerous product strategy and management, and business development roles, including with SWIFT and Markit. At Markit, he was a Managing Director within its trade processing division and was responsible for establishing MarkitSERV FX.
CEO & Founder
Maryanne brings more than 25 years as a corporate veteran in the financial, marketing and advertising industries to her role as founder and CEO of 9th Gear Technologies where she is responsible for leading corporate strategy, scaling the company and investor relations. She is a mutual funds specialist, launching a family of funds and architecting fee-based asset management platforms for banks, broker dealers and insurance firms. Maryanne previously served as CEO of SurgeXLR, a boutique accelerator she founded that focused on a faster path to monetization. She was involved in two successful exits (to Standard & Poor’s and BNP Paribas), and also consulted on the custom content and advertising efforts of many financial firms while working at The Wall Street Journal.
Maryanne is a sought-after speaker both within the US and internationally. As a leader in the FinTech space, Maryanne focuses on modernization and innovation in capital markets. She shares insights on the impact of blockchain on financial services and shows how settlement risk can be eliminated. Maryanne is a frequent speaker at trade groups and associations and engages with a world-wide audience at global industry conferences (Horasis Global Meeting, TradeTech FX, Global Blockchain Conference, Money 20/20, MWC Barcelona).
Maryanne was featured in the Silicon Valley Business Journal’s Women of Influence 2019 and received a Stevie Award for the Most Innovative Woman of the Year in 2018. She has received accolades for numerous speaking engagements. She scored Top Innovator Award for Best Presenter for her pitch at the youngStartUps Venture Competition in Boston in 2018 and earned the 2019 Innovation Showcase Best in Show Award at the Barlow Research Innovation Conference. Barlow gave 9th Gear its top honors, the Monarch Award, for Overall Most Innovative at the same conference.
Maryanne was educated at Cornell University in Material Science Engineering and Whittier Law School with continuous learning at Stanford University (Scaling Blockchain, Valuation Modeling, Angel Investing and part of the Blockchain Club); she holds a BS in Finance.
Jerome Kemp is president of Baton Systems. Prior to his current tenure, Jerome was an independent consultant and senior advisor to the company. Kemp has over 35 years’ experience in capital markets and has previously held the position of global head of futures, clearing and collateral at Citi, with his responsibilities expanding in 2018 to cover the bank’s foreign exchange prime brokerage business. During this time, he built the cleared derivatives business to a position of global leadership. Kemp also spent 18 years at JP Morgan, where he rose to global co-head of the futures and options and over-the-counter clearing business. He was chair of the Futures Industry Association Board from 2018 to 2020. Kemp holds a bachelor's degree from Brandeis University and a master's degree from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.
Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Since 2017, Hampton Finer has led the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Payments and Market Infrastructure Policy team. Hampton is the Chair of the CLS Cooperative Oversight Committee, serves on the Committee for Payments and Market Infrastructure (CPMI) of the BIS, the Fed’s Financial Market Utilities Supervision Committee and FRBNY’s Payments and Market Infrastructure Council. Prior his current role, he led the development of FRBNY and global insurance supervision and standards in various roles. Hampton joined the FRBNY in 2009 to help manage and close the FRBNY’s AIG credit facility and was subsequently seconded to the United States Treasury TARP program to help the government successfully and profitably dispose of its AIG-related investments. During the prior three years, Hampton was a Deputy Superintendent at the New York State Insurance Department where he led several efforts in response to the Global Financial Crisis. From 2001 to 2006, Hampton led economic research and analysis work at the New York State Office of the Attorney General. Between 1998 and 2001, Hampton was a staff economist in the Federal Trade Commission’s Bureau of Economics. Hampton received a Ph.D. in economics from Cornell University in 1998, and a BS in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1992. A native New Yorker and graduate of Stuyvesant High School, Hampton lives with his wife, Yvonne and his sons, Dashiell and Maxwell, in Brooklyn, NY.
10:20 – 11:10
The great inflation debate: Who is right and what to do about it?
- Transitory or permanent? The return of inflation has defined global market volatility in 2021
- Covid and the global economy: Why inflation has surprised forecasters and why it matters?
- Policy rotation: The Covid cost of government debt and the outlook for central bank policy
Founder and Chief Economist
“The markets’ market economist”, this is how Dr Peter Praet, ECB Chief Economist and Board member, describes Lena Komileva, founder and chief economist of City economic intelligence consultancy (g+)economics.
Lena is a veteran market economist widely credited for predicting the Global Financial Crisis and the global recession that followed it, with the new policy regime that has defined international markets and industry developments over the past decade.
She has spent two decades advising CEOs in banking, custodial, brokerage, and financial consulting services as head of market economics for the largest European government bonds broker in the world, as a regular voice at policy and industry forums, and as an economic adviser, working with such institutions as the CFA Institute, the World Gold Council, McKinsey & Co., and the UK Parliament.
Lena is a leading independent voice in the international policy debate on global growth themes focusing on global finance, capital flows, financial innovation, and regulation. She is a Financial Times and Bloomberg Opinion columnist and a regular expert voice on Bloomberg TV and the BBC, regularly quoted the Financial Times, the Wall Street Journal, Reuters and Bloomberg News. For her recent columns on the 2021 global inflation debate and the long term policy implications of Covid, visit https://www.gpluseconomics.co.uk/newsroom/ .
Managing Director and Head of Macro Research
Ajay Rajadhyaksha is a Managing Director and Head of Macro Research at Barclays, based in New
York. He assumed his current role in July 2015 and now oversees the global research and strategy
efforts of the asset allocation, economics, rates, FX, commodities, emerging markets, and
securitized teams. Previously, he was Co-Head of FICC Research and before that, Head of US Fixed
Income Research and US and European Securitized Research. Mr. Rajadhyaksha joined Barclays in
2005 as a Senior Mortgage Strategist. Previously, he worked at Bear Stearns from 2001-2005,
where he worked in Portfolio Strategy and then led the Interest Rate Derivatives Strategy team.
Mr. Rajadhyaksha typically faces off against global CIOs and senior PMs at investment firms, and
is a frequent presenter at both Barclays-sponsored and industry conferences. Since august 2014,
he has been a member of the Treasury Borrowing Advisory Committee, and meets several times a
year with the Chairperson of the Federal Reserve as well as the US Treasury Secretary as a formal
adviser on macroeconomic and market issues. Mr. Rajadhyaksha received a bachelor’s degree in
Electronics Engineering from the University of Mumbai in 1997, an MBA from the Indian Institute
of Management Calcutta in 1999 and a master’s degree in International Management from
Thunderbird, the American Graduate School of International Management in Arizona in 2001.
Managing Director and Chief Global Strategist
J.P. Morgan Asset Management
Dr. David Kelly is the Chief Global Strategist and Head of the Global Market Insights Strategy Team for J.P. Morgan Asset Management. With over 20 years of experience, David provides valuable insight and perspective on the economy and markets to the institutional investor and financial advisor global communities.
David’s research focuses on investment implications of an evolving economic environment. He has written extensively on all aspects of the U.S. economy and his proprietary U.S. economic forecasting model helps shape his views on both the economic landscape and prospective asset class returns. He currently sits on JP Morgan Fund’s operating committee.
Throughout his career, David has developed a unique ability to explain complex economic and market issues in a language that financial professionals can use to communicate to their clients. He is a keynote speaker at many national investment conferences and a frequent guest on CNBC, Bloomberg, and other financial media outlets.
Prior to joining J.P. Morgan Asset Management, David served as Economic Advisor to Putnam Investments. He has also served as a senior strategist/economist at SPP Investment Management, Primark Decision Economics, Lehman Brothers and DRI/McGraw-Hill.
David is a CFA® charterholder. He also has a Ph.D and M.A. in Economics from Michigan State University and a B.A. in Economics from University College Dublin in the Republic of Ireland.
Managing Director, Head of Macro Research
BlackRock Investment Institute
Elga heads up economic and markets research of the Blackrock Investment Institute (BII). BII provides connectivity between BlackRock’s portfolio managers, originates economic and market research and publishes insights. Prior to joining BlackRock, Dr Bartsch was Global Co-Head of Economics and Chief European Economist at Morgan Stanley in London. She started her career as a research associate at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, a large German economic think-tank where she worked at the President’s office and managed the Advanced Studies in International Economic Policy Research, a post-graduate program in international macroeconomics. Dr Bartsch has more than 20 years of macro research experience and is a member of the ECB Shadow Council and a trustee of the IFO Institute for economic research. She also served on and chaired the Economic and Monetary Policy Committee of the German Banking Association. Having studied at the University of Hannover and the London School of Economics, Elga graduated with a Master’s degree from Kiel University where she subsequently also completed a PhD.
11:15 – 12:15
What is the future for FX clearing and where might the market ultimately end up?
- Switching to SA-CCR, main challenges and opportunities
- Are there clearing enhancements potentially on the horizon – additional asset classes or clearing services?
- UMR implementation and how will the new regulations impact the FX market?
- Lessons learned: Are we ready for phase five and what have we learned from the previous years?
Managing director and head of global EMD trading
Michael O'Brien is Managing Director, Head of Global EMD Trading at Artisan Partners and former Vice President and Director of Global Trading of Eaton Vance Management , overseeing a team responsible for best execution of all trades for the Global Fixed Income department as well as other foreign exchange spot and hedging trades for other Eaton Vance investment teams.
In addition, he is responsible for trading-related research and broker-dealer relationships for the Global Fixed Income department.
Prior to joining Eaton Vance in 2005, Michael was affiliated with Wellington Management Company for two years and spent three years at Brown Brothers Harriman.
Michael earned a B.A. in economics and Spanish from the Colby College and an M.S. in finance from the Carroll School of Management at Boston College. He is a CFA charter holder and a member of the Boston Security Analysts Society.
Senior Manager, Sales and Relationship Management
Lauren Ewald is Senior Manager, Sales and Relationship Management at LCH, responsible for driving buy-side sales and relationship management in North and South America, across all LCH products. Lauren’s experience in financial markets includes over six years in fixed income operations at Goldman Sachs, where she supported a range of services, including post-trade, before joining LCH in 2012. Lauren holds a BA in Economics from Bucknell University.
Policy Advisor and Head of Financial Markets Risk Analysis
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Ketan B. Patel is a policy advisor and head of financial markets risk analysis in the financial markets group. He is responsible for analyzing the public policy implications of risks in financial markets and financial market infrastructures.
Patel has over 19 years of risk management, research and trading experience to this position. Most recently, he was chief risk officer of OTC Clearing and deputy group risk officer of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited “HKEX.” He led a division of over 50 risk management professionals across China, Hong Kong, Singapore and the U.K. Prior to HKEX, Patel worked at CME Group. Additionally, he served as Vice-Chair of CCP12 and co-Chair of the CCP12 Risk Working Group.
During his career, he has managed risk through several stressed market events including COVID-19 and the 2015 Chinese Stock Market Collapse, the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, the Global Financial Crisis of 2008/2009, Refco bankruptcy and Sentinel Investments collapse. He has also led several post-trade initiatives including HKEX’s Next Gen Risk Models of VaR and Stress Testing, Stock & Bond Connect, established new central counter parties of OTC Clear HK Ltd and LME Clear and developed the quantitative modeling and risk policy teams in the risk research department at CME.
Global Co-Head of Futures, Clearing and Foreign Exchange Prime Brokerage
Christopher R. Perkins, Managing Director, is the Global Co-Head of Futures, OTC Clearing and
Foreign Exchange Prime Brokerage (FCX) at Citi. In this capacity, he delivers leading listed
derivative electronic and voice execution and comprehensive central clearing capabilities to
institutional clients across the world. He also leads Citi’s globally acclaimed, #1 ranked OTC
clearing and Foreign Exchange Prime Brokerage (FXPB) businesses.
In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Mr. Perkins founded Citi’s OTC clearing business and
is a recognized, international authority and published “thought leader” on central clearing. He
oversees a clearing business that has successfully cleared hundreds of trillions of dollars notional in
client Interest Rates Swaps, Credit Default Swaps and Foreign Exchange Swaps and safeguards
approximately $40 billion in client assets.
Appointed as the Global Head of FXPB in 2018, he architected and executed a comprehensive
restructuring and integration plan across multiple geographies. These efforts improved profitability
and risk management while driving an industry-leading market share.
Prior to joining Citi in 2008, Mr. Perkins served as the U.S. Head of Derivatives Intermediation at
Lehman Brothers managing a portfolio of over $100 billion in notional across credit and interest
An Iraq war veteran, Mr. Perkins served in the U.S. Marine Corps for nine years achieving the rank
of Captain. Highlights of his military career include leading the reconstruction, civil affairs, logistics,
public affairs and fire support coordination effort in Ar Ramadi, capital of the Al Anbar Province
and commanding Battery F, 2nd Battalion, 11th Marines. He is the founder of the Citi Military
Veteran’s Networks, which include approximately 3,000 employees across 16 locations in the U.S.
and United Kingdom. Mr. Perkins was instrumental in the formation of Citi Salutes
(www.citisalutes.com) and served as co-founder of Veterans on Wall Street
(www.veteransonwallstreet.com) a national initiative focused on veterans employment and
empowerment. He was named “Employee of the Month—35 People Worthy of Emulation”
(Esquire, Fall 2012) and recipient of Columbia University’s “Peter J. Awn Community Service
Award” in 2018.
Mr. Perkins serves on the Executive Committee and Board of Directors of FIA, Inc. He also serves as
Vice Chairman on the Board of Directors of Team Rubicon, an organization of approximately
150,000 volunteers that unites the skills and experiences of military veterans to rapidly deploy
emergency response teams during natural disasters. Additionally, he serves on the Leadership
Council of the Bob Woodruff Foundation, and is a member of the Economic Club of New York, the
Nationswell Council, and Business Executives for National Security (BENS). Previously, he served on
the Board of Directors of Traiana, Inc.
Mr. Perkins has a Bachelor of Science Degree from the U.S. Naval Academy, with distinction, and
a Master of Arts Degree from Georgetown University.
12:15 – 12:25
e-FX Awards announcement
July 28, 2021 - EDT
08:30 – 08:35
Chairman’s opening remarks
08:35 – 09:35
Algos — what next?
- FXGC code review: Disclosures around FX algos
- Tech resilience: How much do we have to worry about?
- Tools for a sharper forecasting and bigger cost savings
- Ever-evolving with innovation: Execution algos and AI, big data, automation
Global head of eFX sales
Jeff Wertheimer has 20 years of electronic FX experience and currently serves as Global Head of eFX Sales and Americas Head of Electronic Execution Sales at HSBC. Prior to HSBC, he helped launch FXall, a leading multibank FX trading platform, then joined Morgan Stanley as Head of FX eSales for the Americas. Jeff holds a BA from Colgate University and an MBA from Columbia University.
Head of FICC execution strategies
Ralf Donner is Head of FICC Execution Strategies at Goldman Sachs. He is responsible for the firm’s client FICC algorithmic execution offering, pre- and intra-trade liquidity and transaction cost analytics, and post-trade reporting.
Ralf started his professional career at ABN Amro in 2006 as an FX options quant, followed by 8 years with Morgan Stanley in London and New York, first in model validation of options pricing models and then in quant sales, focusing on systematic FX trading strategies and FX market microstructure. From 2014-2016 he ran Morgan Stanley’s QSI team in New York.
Ralf holds a Masters in Physics and a Doctorate in Theoretical Physics from Oxford University.
Global head of FX algo execution
Asif Razaq is an experienced foreign exchange algo trader with over 15 years of experience developing electronic trading platforms. He has a masters of science degree in artificial intelligence (AI) and joined BNP Paribas from Citi, where he worked on various initiatives including e-FX pricing engines and algorithmic trading. Utilising his experience in AI, Razaq developed and launched Cortex iX, a cutting-edge FX algorithmic execution platform that has been highly acclaimed by clients and industry experts globally.
Global editorial director
Duncan Wood is the London-based editor-in-chief of Risk.net. He was promoted to the role at the start of 2015, to lead the editorial reorganisation of the website and its print titles. Wood had been editor of Risk magazine since July 2011. He rejoined Risk as European editor in October 2009, having originally worked for Risk and Asia Risk in London and Hong Kong as a writer and researcher between 1998 and 2000.
In the intervening years, Wood was news editor for the Oliver Wyman-founded online start-up ERisk.com. He also worked freelance for six years while living in Germany, with his work featuring in Euromoney, Financial News, IFR, and The Wall Street Journal, as well as Risk magazine and its sister titles. Wood has written about derivatives and risk throughout his 17-year career in journalism. He is a Neal Awards finalist, and has won Incisive Media's journalist and editor of the year awards.
09:35 – 10:20
The impact of Macroeconomics on FX markets
- Will Macro strategies make a comeback?
- How will inflation expectations affect Bonds and the US Dollar?
- Will the search for yield contribute Euro and Dollar outflows and EM inflows?
- Market Opportunities 2021 and beyond
Managing Director and CRO
Lyxor Asset Management
Steven GEOVANIS joined Lyxor Asset Management Inc as Chief Risk Officer in 2007. He oversees $20 billion dollars in hedge fund investments for large institutional clients. Mr. GEOVANIS was a Founding Partner and Head of Macro Trading at Citigroup's Tribeca Hedge Fund. Previously he was Head of Market Risk for the Americas at HSBC and a member of HSBC's Asset and Liability Committee. Mr. GEOVANIS was a Founding Partner of Summit Capital where he was responsible for foreign exchange trading and market risk. He spent much of his career at Merrill Lynch where he ran Global Foreign Exchange Trading and served as President of Merrill Lynch International Bank. At Merrill, he also headed the Global Currency and Bond Option Desks. Mr. GEOVANIS received his B.A. from Harvard and M.B.A. from the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania.
10:20 – 10:30
10:45 – 11:45
Innovation in the FX market — what will the future hold?
- WFH and the new day to day normal: Where technology and FX need to move in the post COVID world?
- In today’s fragmented FX market, can aggregators help in enabling liquidity and saving costs?
- Is Cloud the future of FX trading?
- How artificial intelligence has changed the FX trade?
- Hands-free hedging: Tools, apps and platforms to come
Director, Aladdin Product Management
Morgan Beeson is a Product Manager for Aladdin’s multi-asset trading platform, responsible for its equity, FX and automation strategies. Morgan has 9 years of experience in various trading technology roles, having begun his career at BlackRock in 2012. Morgan holds an Interdisciplinary B.A. in Mathematics and Economics from Bucknell University.
Deputy Head & Chief of Staff, Fixed Income, Currencies and Commodities
Svante Hedin is currently Deputy Head and Chief of Staff for FICC at SEB, the leading Northern European FX bank. His previous roles have included Co-head of Trading, and Head of FX & Commodities. He moved with his family to Stockholm and joined SEB in 2013 - prior to this, Svante spent most of his career in London in several executive positions in consulting and banking, most recently as MD and head of e-trading for a leading American tier 1 investment bank. Svante has a long history of contributing to industry forums and advisory groups on both the private and public side. He is vice chair of the central-bank led Scandinavian FX Committee, and a member of the Global Foreign Exchange Committee.
EVP strategic planning and partnerships
Phil is responsible for oneZero’s ongoing investment, growth, business development and expansion through building out its strategy and partnerships. Before joining oneZero, he served as CEO of FXall, lead the FX Rates and Credit business for Thomson Reuters, and was Managing Director of Global FX Derivatives Trading at JP Morgan. He has expertise in start-up ideation, attracting strategic investors, capital raising from the private equity community, acquisitions, public offering, company sale, merger integration, and turn around. Phil has served as a strategic advisor to oneZero since June 2018.
Laura Matthews is a New York-based reporter for FX Markets.
She previously worked for Euromoney Institutional Investor, the International Business Times, Gannett’s Pacific Daily News, and other publications in Jamaica and The Bahamas.
Laura has a MS from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism, and a BA in media and communication from the Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication at the University of the West Indies, Mona.
Global Head FX Algos
Vittorio is the head of the Segregated Algo execution at DB's FX and LD divisions (Foreign Exchange & Listed Derivatives). The Segregated Execution team is focused on building systems for high-quality execution on behalf of DB's clients and traders with particular attention to liquidity sources and the micro structure of the underlying markets. The team attempts to explore and display novel uses of trading data, such as DB’s Market Indicators to display to users a more quantitative view of the market. Prior to this role, Vittorio was a principal market maker at DB London eFX team. He has worked as a trader for over seventeen years, spanning both the voice and e FX option and spot market.
12:00 – 12:45
How the FX Global Code review will deliver greater transparency in the Global FX market
- Why did market participants demand more transparency?
- How will the new standardised Disclosures Cover Sheets work?
Head of foreign exchange division
Bank of England
Rohan Churm is the Head of Foreign Exchange Division at the Bank of England. The division is responsible for leading the Bank’s foreign currency operations, and using its presence, expertise and influence in financial markets to inform and shape the Bank’s policy decisions and priorities. Those foreign currency operations include managing the UK’s official foreign currency reserves on behalf of the UK Government, managing the Bank of England’s smaller pool of foreign currency reserves, and carrying out foreign currency transactions for customers including government departments.
Rohan was heavily involved in the 3-year review of the FX Global Code, including Chairing the GFXC Disclosures Working Group. Rohan is a member of the Foreign Exchange Joint Standing Committee (FXJSC).
Rohan has been in role since 2017, having joined the Bank of England in 2001. He was previously head of Stress Testing Strategy Division from 2014-17 and was responsible for the delivery of stress tests and development of the stress testing framework. He has written various articles on policy and financial market issues, including Stress Testing and the impact of Unconventional Monetary Policy. He obtained a BA in Economics from Cambridge University and an MSc in Economics and Finance from Warwick Business School. His outside interests include Chess, Cricket, and Football.